Spain is at the bottom right. In the left corner the Emperor Caesar Augustus delivers a mandate to three officials appointed to survey the world. Below this mandate, in Norman French, is the plea for prayers for the map maker, Richard of Haldingham. We can only guess at the reasons behind the creation of such a map; one purpose at least must have been to provide in a simple and compact form, especially for the illiterate, a pictorial encyclopaedia of knowledge available at the time, but, as it was compiled by a.
At last laborious transcription of manuscripts by hand could be dispensed with, and the new processes, combined with the spread of paper manufacture, made possible the reproduction of books in almost any quantity on any subject. It was an invention which represented a revolution in the intellectual opportunities available to ordinary people; apart from the Bible and sacred literature, scholars of the day compiled editions of the Greek and Latin classics, histories, dictionaries and textbooks of every kind, hitherto available only in church or monastic libraries.
Although for a time there was considerable opposition from churchmen who saw their grip on education being set aside and from the old craft guilds who feared the threat to their livelihood it has been calculated that, by the end of the century, not far short of 10 million books, including over a hundred editions of the Bible had been printed.
In the story of printing Nuremberg plays a major part and soon became one of the most important and influential publishing centres. Although not founded until soon after the year , the city's position at the meeting point of North-South and East-West trade routes in Central Europe, and its designation in the middle of the thirteenth century as an Imperial Free City, led to rapid growth in wealth and status.
By the fifteenth century it had become one of the great cultural centres of Europe, its scholars and craftsmen exercising powerful influence throughout the Continent, not only on the development of cartography but on scientific thought in general. Many famous scholars worked or lived there including Regiomontanus Johann Miiller , the astronomer; Johann Schoner, astronomer and globe maker; Hartmann Schedel, cosmographer and entrepreneur; Anton Koberger, master printer; Martin Behaim, cosmographer and globe maker; and Ehrhard Etzlaub, an instrument maker who produced a road map of Central Europe, the earliest printed map of its type.
And, most important of all, Albrecht Diirer who was born there in Amongst all the magnificent books printed in the fifteenth century - which are known as incunables one stands out as being the finest illustrated topographical work of the period: the Liber Chronicarum or Nuremberg Chronicle. Published by Hartmann Schedel and printed by Anton Koberger in July it contained a total of 1, woodcuts which include a Ptolemaic world map, a 'birds-eye' map of Europe and the first known printed view of an English town.
These woodcuts were made by Michael Wohlgemut Wolgemut , and his son-in-law, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff. Wohlgemut was Diirer's tutor between and The print of 'Anglie Provincia' opposite was once thought to be a representation of Dover or even London but is now considered to be an illustration of a typically European city of the day and actually has a striking resemblance to the architecture of Nuremberg in The description accompanying the view see translation below is written in medieval Latin and includes the following: '.
This seems a clear implication that the authors were not sure of these facts and illustrates how remote London was from Nuremberg in medieval times. Apart from its general interest as a very early descriptive topographical work, the Nuremberg Chronicle is also, by virtue of its date of publication, an historical document of the greatest importance.
Issued seven months after Columbus landed in the New World, the Chronicle presents us with a 'last' view of the known medieval world as seen by the peoples of Western Europe. Within a few years new editions were being issued incorporating news of the successful. Ktocf mangfarwc inter fcptctnonc 7 occidcte fit j. Cffcruftir B er ea pellea 7 maeipu. Ctreui tu bnttdma patefe tngmta oao mriia p jffup repruagiu qufq; mitias pytbue?
To Locrinus, the first born, fell all of the centre of the kingdom, which later became known as Lochria after him, and his city of London is still greatly celebrated for its merchants and traders. And many say that the Kings and Princes of England and the Parliament of the people meet to this day with the merchants there. To the second son Albanetus fell another part of the island and this was called 'Albania', but nowadays Scocia Scotland. This Scotland occupies the higher part of the island, which lies towards the North winds and is separated from England by some smallish rivers and a certain mountain range.
The third son inherited Cambria, now called Thule, the districts to the North and West which were the last to be explored by the Romans and where, during the summer solstice, the sun passes only from the star of Cancer and there is thus no night; while during the winter there is no day. The greater part of the Island is fertile. It is surrounded by many other islands of some dimensions, the largest of them Hibernia Ireland which is divided from Britain by a narrow channel, and some smaller ones called the Orchades Orkneys.
The blessed Pope Gregory, second of this name, sent to Britain the monks Augustine of Miletus and John with other men of outstanding character and they first converted the English. Since then many of their kings have shone forth for their miracles. The dimensions of Britain are given by Pythies and Ysidore as 38, [square] miles, and in it are many fine rivers, besides large and varied supplies of metals.
Its history is to be found best described in Bede. Atlantic voyages and the discoveries on the American continent; discoveries which proved to be key factors in the complex problems of mapping the modern world as we know it. The following is a translation of the Latin text accompanying the illustration of 'England' in early editions of the Chronicle: Anglie Provincia The island of England was originally called Albion after certain white mountains which were seen by those steering towards it; but was then named Britain perpetuating the name of a fierce son Brutus of Silvius, the last king of the Latins, who overcame the giants inhabiting the island.
Its present-day name of England is taken from a certain 'Anglus' who was a powerful king. England forms a triangle between North and West and is separated from the continent at all points, beginning near Germany in the North and extending alongside France and Spain towards the West. Solinus regarded the French shore as the limit of this world and the island of Britain almost as belonging to another. And Virgil thought of it as separated from the rest of the globe. But Brutus having decided to settle in England, immediately founded on the banks of the River Thames a city so well fortified that it recalled in all its forces the memory of ancient Troy.
This Brutus is said to. At sea, as we have described elsewhere, portulan charts were in common use in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and had reached a high degree of sophistication, but with one or two important exceptions, there was no counterpart for land maps.
In a sense, mobility on land in early times was not the essential factor it has become in the last century or so, but when one thinks of the hazards and dangers of travelling, guidance was far more necessary than in our own day. In fact, in spite of primitive roads and restrictions imposed by lack of transport, movement must have involved great numbers of people: for centuries emissaries and armies moved across the face of Europe and Asia, wool traders came even from Turkey to the Cotswolds, pilgrims and crusaders covered enormous distances.
In the British Isles there were the drovers' or drift roads along which cattle were driven from the North and West to the fairs and markets near the centres of population as well as the Salt Ways used throughout the Middle Ages for the distribution of salt from Cheshire to all parts of England. As might be expected, it was the Romans who produced a remarkably practical and accurate map of the 50, or more miles of roads in the Empire, probably in the third century AD. Known as the Peutinger Table, from the name of a sixteenth-century German antiquarian who possessed a thirteenthcentury copy, now in Vienna, it was in the form of a roll about 22 feet long and a foot wide, showing roads in straight lines with distances between stages.
By its nature, the shapes of most countries and land masses were much distorted, but no doubt it served its purpose as an efficient guide. In Britain, as elsewhere, the Roman roads fell into. Indeed, more often than not, they were narrow winding lanes or bridle tracks between cultivated fields and, in the absence of hedges and fences, frequently changed course as weather conditions or changes in land ownership dictated.
Perhaps these factors impelled the English chronicler, Matthew Paris, and the monks of the Benedictine Abbey of St Albans to draw, about the year , a crude but picturesque map of the country included in their History of the English. Although not a road map as such, it was clearly intended as a guide rather than a true geographical representation of England and part of Scotland. Rivers and river crossings are shown prominently and the positions of towns are distorted so that they appear almost in a straight line from the North to Dover, the intention being to show travellers, whether pilgrims, crusaders or traders, the shortest route to Dover and the Continent.
A century later appeared the 'Gough' map of Great Britain so named after its eighteenth-century discoverer which can be said to be a real map, numerous roads being shown diagrammatically in red, leading from town to town with staging distances. There is evidence that the 'Gough' map and copies of it were in use years later and yet, even so, roads were still ignored by Saxton and Speed in spite of their dependence on them for carrying out countrywide surveys.
Although road maps were so neglected in England and elsewhere, there was a notable exception in Germany where, in , Ehrhard Etzlaub, an instrument maker, compiled decorative woodblock road maps of the surroundings of Nuremberg and other German cities, as well as a much larger map of Central Europe known as 'The Rome Way'.
This is thought to have been prepared in time for the Holy Year celebrations held in Rome in the vear isoo. Etzlaub's ideas, like those of the anonymous compiler of the 'Gough' map in England, were exceptional innovations, far ahead of their time, and were not followed up for a century or more.
In the absence of any indication of roads on their maps, we must assume that English travellers had some means of guidance in their travels and we do indeed find that in this period there were in existence 'road books' which usually consisted of brief descriptions of the countryside through which roads passed and, of more importance, details of the main 'high Wais' with distances between stopping-places.
Of these books the earliest was the Itinerary of John Leland written about 15 , followed by a number of others published in the last quarter of the century, notably Holinshed's Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland, first printed in , containing tables of roads and stage distances, which were frequently copied by other publishers. In France, road books in similar style were published from about onwards, one of them by Jean Bernard, printed in Paris in , being of particular interest.
A short history of England and Scotland, it contained a volume giving details of many main roads in England and Wales with occasional warnings of the dangers of thieves and brigands. The earliest sheet map produced in France showing the post roads of that country was published in by Melchior Tavernier, copies of which are extremely rare. It was also printed in later atlases by Nicolas Sanson from onwards.
In Central Europe, if we ignore the very early maps by Ehrhard Etzlaub c. In fact, the only works of any note in this field were Norden's An Intended Guydefor English Travailers , in which he demonstrated for the first. An edition with enlarged maps was issued in by Thomas Jenner who is also known for the Quartermaster's Map of England and Wales, so called because of its use in the Civil War. The Quartermaster's Map continued in use until late in the century but by that time much more detailed and up-todate guidance was required to meet travellers' demands.
John Adams also published an Index Villaris, a gazetteer of cities and market towns with distance tables.
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For practical purposes, however, there were obvious limitations to the amount of detail which could be included on sheet maps and it was not long before these defects were remedied by the invention of the 'strip map' by John Ogilby. In Ogilby published, to 'Great Applause", the Britannia - a Geographical and Historical Description of the Principal Roads thereof, consisting of maps of the principal roads of England and Wales, engraved in strip form, giving details of the roads themselves and descriptive notes of the country on either side, each strip having a compass rose to indicate changes of direction.
According to advertisement his survey was said to have measured over 2 5, miles of road in fact, the maps covered 7, miles , all surveyed on foot, of course, with a 'perambulator' or measuring wheel to log the distances from place to place. He used throughout the standard mile of 1, yards, which had been introduced by statute in but which had never supplanted the old long, middle and short miles, an endless source of confusion to travellers.
There were four issues of the Britannia in and a reprint in As Ogilby's maps primarily indicated the post roads of England and Wales it is, perhaps, an opportune moment to note that, contrary to the generally accepted idea that our posts started in with Hill's 'Penny Post', there had, in fact, been a system of Royal Posts ever since the time of Edward I, and in the early part of the sixteenth century a Master of the Posts was. A recently discovered large road map of England and Wales engraved by Wenceslaus Hollar and dated c.
This map may have pre-dated John Ogilby's Britannia. This postal system was exclusively for royal use but in a 'Letter Office of England and Scotland' was established for public mail and a distribution network using the post roads soon became widely used. Clearly Ogilby's maps, and those which soon followed, met a great and growing need.
In Robert Morden, inspired by Ogilby's strip maps, issued packs of playing cards giving a very fair indication of the main roads in each county and from then onwards practically all county maps included roads even though the roads themselves were still hardly recognizable as such. Only when Turnpike Trusts were set up with the express purpose of levelling charges to offset the costs of road improvements was there any real change. As a result people. Among the most popular works in the early part of the eighteenth century were those by John Senex, and John Owen and Emanuel Bowen, followed by Daniel Paterson, William Faden and, at the end of the century, by John Gary, the most popular of all.
From the famous Britannia - a Geographical and Historical Description of the Principal Roads thereof, first published in In the same period, in France, Germany and Italy, cartographers developed their own methods of compiling road maps, generally following the style of Tavernier's Post Road Map of France , already mentioned, rather than Ogilby's strip maps, although some examples in that form were published in France and Italy. Notable examples of Continental maps, often in many editions, were published by N. Jaillot , L. Denis , , L. Desnos France and England , J. Homann , C.
Weigel and C. Rossi c. The following list includes brief details of the better known road books and atlases of England and Wales published from onwards. Road map from Britannia Depicta or Ogilby Improved, published in many editions from to about The Traveller's Companion became immensely popular and had a considerable influence on the formative work of the Ordnance Survey Office, which was established in Beyond that, we really have only the scantiest knowledge of methods of navigation, until the invention in Italy in the early years of the thirteenth century of the compass, at first consisting of an elementary iron needle and compass stone from which the magnetic compass soon evolved.
The discovery was decisive in the development of sea charts, then known as portulan charts, a term based on the word 'portolano', which was an Italian pilot book or seaman's guide containing written sailing directions between ports and indicating prominent coastal landmarks and navigational hazards. These were also known to English seamen in the Middle Ages as 'rutter' from the French 'routier'.
Essentially, the charts showed only the detail of coastlines with placenames written on the landward side at right angles, prominent ports and safe harbours usually being shown in red and other names in black. In the sea areas there were compass roses from which direction or rhumb lines extended over the chart enabling a navigator to plot his route, whilst other open spaces were embellished with flags and coats of arms of the coastal states and vignettes of cities and ports.
By their very nature and usage comparatively few have survived and the earliest, thought to originate in Genoa, date from the beginning of the fourteenth century. The finest collection, drawn on skin, known as the Catalan Atlas, was prepared for Charles V of France in by Majorcan pilots, the leading navigators of their day, whose voyaging ranged from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Their navigational skills and practical application of the use of sea charts were major influences on the development of Italian cartography and, in particular, on the projects of Henry the Navigator in Portugal where, in the early years of the fifteenth century, the first tentative voyages down the west coast of Africa were being made.
In Venice, about , the first printed book of sea charts of islands in the Mediterranean compiled by Bartolommeo dalli Sonetti was published. In this Isolario, or island book, and in others of a similar type which appeared in later years, islands were shown in stylised outline, embellished only with compass points. Otherwise they were left plain, sometimes even without place names. It is thought they were printed in this manner so that names and navigational detail could be inserted by hand.
Surviving copies are frequently annotated in this way. No doubt these books were useful in their day but by the middle of the sixteenth century the development of commerce, especially in North West Europe, called for better aids to navigation in the seas beyond the Mediterranean. Not surprisingly the Dutch provided the answer. Their seamen had acquired a virtual monopoly of the coastal trade of Western Europe, trans-shipping the wealth of the East and the New World from Lisbon and Spanish ports to Holland, the Baltic and the British Isles.
To meet the demands of this trade a pilot in Enkhuizen on the Zuider Zee, Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer, compiled and had published in Leyden, in 15 84, a collection of charts entitled Spiegel der Zeevaerdt, which was greeted with immediate acclaim and many editions in Dutch, English, French and German were issued in the following thirty years. The English edition translated by Sir Anthony Ashley, with entirely re-engraved charts, was published in London in , the year of the Armada.
So great was its popularity that the name, anglicized to 'Waggoner', came into use in English as a generic term for sea charts of all kinds. Also in there appeared a series of charts drawn by Robert Adams showing the engagements, almost day by day, between the English and Spanish fleets and the subsequent destruction of the Armada. The charts of the Thames School covered practically every part of the known world and although most of them were not noted for originality, usually being based on Dutch prototypes, in total they probably exercised an important influence on the later charts printed by Thornton himself and on those by John Seller and others associated with the preparation of the later volumes of the English Pilot.
Before that appeared, however, the English suddenly awakened to the dangers of the Dutch monopoly in map and chart making. In the Dutch sailed up the Thames and destroyed a great part of the British Navy in the Medway and bombarded Chatham. Already occupied with the rebuilding of London after the Great Fire and with an outbreak of plague, the Government was shaken still further by the realization that the Dutch knew more about the coastline of England than the English themselves, and their confidence was not increased when it was found that John Seller, in producing the first volume of his marine atlas, the English Pilot, in , was still using Dutch plates and often very old ones at that.
As now, government was tardy in action and it was not until that Samuel Pepys, as Secretary of the Navy, instructed Captain Green vile Collins to carry out a survey of British coasts and harbours. In due course, after a seven-year survey, Captain Collins issued in the Great Britain's Coasting Pilot, an outstanding work consisting of 48 charts, the first complete Pilot Book in English of all the coasts of Great Britain and the surrounding islands with special attention, of course, to the ports.
At about the same time as the publication of the Coasting Pilot, Edmund Halley was preparing his thematic charts of the Oceans which were issued in the years Although it has to be agreed that England's contribution to marine cartography in the eighteenth century and much of the nineteenth was short in quantity and often quality, there can be no doubt that Halley's charts, linked with Edward Wright's Certaine Errors of Navigation, published just a century earlier, and John Harrison's perfection of the chronometer in were the most important scientific contributions to the art of navigation in the whole period.
In France during the later years of the seventeenth century the ambitions of Louis XIV had awakened his countrymen's interest in the sciences. After the establishment of the Paris Observatory in a survey. Issued in by John Pine, this was possibly the finest English book of eighteenth-century engravings. In , a few years before the issue of Waghenaer's charts, Gerard Mercator published in Germany a world map using for the first time his new method of projection, which was to mark the greatest advance in map making since Ptolemy.
In fact, for ordinary seamen of the time, Mercator's new ideas were too advanced and difficult to apply in practice and it was not until Edward Wright, an Englishman, provided the necessary mathematical formulae in a book entitled Certaine Errors of Navigation, followed by a world chart in , that the merits of the new system were generally recognized and appreciated by navigators.
In the early years of the seventeenth century the Blaeu family in Amsterdam published a number of marine atlases, now extremely rare, based largely on Waghenaer, but the first such atlas wholly based on Mercator's projection was the Dell' Arcano del Mare Secrets of the Sea by Sir Robert Dudley. A skilled mathematician and navigator, Dudley, after exile from England, had settled in Florence where the atlas was published in The charts, beautifully engraved by an Italian, Antonio Lucini, are now greatly valued. With this single exception, however, Dutch domination of the seas for the greater part of the seventeenth century enabled them to maintain their position as the leading and most prolific cartographers of the time; in particular Anthonie Jacobsz Lootsman , Pieter Goos, de Wit, Hendrick Doncker and, above all, the van Keulen family, are famous names in this sphere.
Although there were few printed sea charts from English sources to rival the Dutch there was no scarcity of manuscript charts by Englishmen. From about onwards the demand for such charts, arising out of the seafaring developments of the late Elizabethan period, was met by a group of draughtsmen who have become known as the Thames School, named from their obvious association with London and the river.
This group, active over a long period until the early years of the eighteenth century, embraced about thirty to forty names including Gabriel Tatton c. Of these, the most active were William. Chart of the East Coast of England.
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From the Dell" Arcana del Mare, first published in Florence in These were beautifully produced maps, much superior to those of Captain Collins, and the French maintained their lead in this field, following the foundation of a National Hydrographic Service in , until well into the eighteenth century. A revision of Le Neptune Francois was completed in 3 by J. Bellin and many charts of other parts of the world were published during this time.
Towards the end of the century Britain began to play a leading role in chart making, influenced by the invention of Harrison's timepiece, which solved the problem of calculating longitude at sea, and by the voyages of Captain Cook and the growing supremacy of the Navy as a world force.
Sea charts issued in this period are too numerous to mention individually but of particular note were the charts of Cook's voyages published between and , the North American Pilot and West Indian Atlas by Thomas Jefferys i ; the North American Atlas and General Atlas by William Faden, successor to Jefferys; the Atlantic Neptune by J. In , no doubt influenced by the establishment of the Ordnance Survey Office four years earlier, the British Admiralty set up a Hydrographic Office to coordinate the production and issue of sea charts for the Royal Navy, appointing as Hydrographer, Alexander Dalrymple who had held the same post with the East India Company since As in the case of ordnance maps, the charts produced under the authority of the Office gradually superseded those printed by private enterprise and by vast areas of the oceans of the world had been officially surveyed and charted.
Porcacchi G. Rosaccio V. Waghenaer W. Barentsz Barentzoon J. Linschoten B. Langenes Blaeu family H. Gerritsz J. Jansson J. Goos F. Doncker P. Roggeveen Van Keulen family J. Loots R. Ottens French. Jaillot L. Bellin J. Roux R. Bonne C. Beautemps-Beaupre J. Dumont d'Urville British. Chart of a stretch of the Cornish coastline included in the Great Britain's Coasting Pilot, first published in Jefferys William Herbert.
Faden J. George Vancouver Matthew Flinders J. In the Middle Ages populations of the most notable cities were surprisingly small and it is likely that Amsterdam, Antwerp and Nuremberg - to take a few names at random - had no more than about 20, inhabitants in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and it has been estimated that even late Elizabethan London embraced only some , people which was probably about ten times as many as any other English city at that time.
Travellers were few and such major buildings as existed were built over many decades, so that the layout of even the larger cities scarcely changed from generation to generation. In consequence there was little need for planned guidance in the form expected today. Before printed plans became available, the compilers of early manuscript maps of the countryside made use of pictorial symbols in elevation, based on the outline of well-known buildings, to distinguish town from town.
Those on Matthew Paris's maps of about the year are particularly attractive and left the traveller in no doubt of the landmarks on his route. The 'Gough' map, too, by the use of different symbols and colours, distinguished between cathedral cities, monastic foundations and ordinary towns and villages. Very often on manuscript maps and portulan charts there were picturesque vignettes of capital cities and places of note inset in any space available.
Not until the late fifteenth century, as a result of the wider dissemination of books and documents made possible by movable-type printing, do we find printed topographical works containing town views in any number. The first, a very rare volume called Sanctorum Peregrinationum by Bernhard von Breydenbach, printed in Mainz in , covering a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, contained woodcut views of Jerusalem, Venice and other places on the route. Still rare, but more commonly seen, is the Nuremberg Chronicle about which we have written at greater length in Chapter 4.
The illustration shown there is of a town view in the style typical of the time. Thereafter, for most of the sixteenth century, German cartographers led the way in producing town plans in a more modern sense. In Sebastian Miinster issued in Basle his Cosmographia containing about sixty plans and views, some in plan form, but many still using the old type of outline in elevation, and still others in bird's-eye view. Very soon afterwards Frans Hogenberg, who engraved maps for Ortelius, together with another noted engraver of the time, Georg Hoefnagel, compiled and issued in Cologne a City Atlas intended as a companion work to the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum.
The Atlas provides a fascinating sixteenth-century picture of the principal cities and towns in Europe, Asia, Africa and even America and records details of public buildings, heraldic devices and rural and domestic scenes, besides many street names. Towns are usually shown in bird's-eye view, set in picturesque and romantic backgrounds with figures of inhabitants in local dress placed boldly in the foreground. Although some of them had been included in the earlier works already mentioned, in a great many instances these were the first views to appear in print.
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The Braun and Hogenberg plates eventually passed to. Jan Jansson who reissued the plans in Amsterdam in , having removed the costumed figures which, of course, by this time were no longer of contemporary interest. Further issue details are given in Chapter Meanwhile, in England, a plan of Norwich had been drawn in 15 5 9 by Wm Cunningham; of London, about the same time, probably by a Flemish artist; and of Cambridge in by Richard Lyne, this being the earliest engraved town plan by an Englishman.
Towards the end of the century the pace of development was quickening and plans of London by Valegio c. It is, however, to John Speed that we owe our knowledge of. Some of these were based on manuscript plans in William Smith's Description of England prepared in , and others by Norden, but many were the result of his own travels and surveys throughout the country.
For the next years or so, the work of Braun and Hogenberg and Speed formed the basis of practically all town plans in this country. Many of the maps issued by Kitchin, Bowen, Jefferys and others in the contained inset plans and vignettes of county towns and other places of importance but until the latter half of that century towns, excluding London, of course,.
Town plan of the City of Gloucester shown on Speed's map of Gloucestershire first published in Not until well into the nineteenth century were comprehensive series of town plans on a good scale published. The sheer size and rate of growth of London called for more frequent resurveying and mapping than elsewhere, especially after the Great Fire. Maps of particular interest are those by Wenceslaus Hollar , , , c. We note below some of the more important works relating to British towns published up to about Town plan included in Britannia Magna, the first book devoted entirely to plans of British towns and cities.
Most of the thirty-one plans in the book were based on Speed but Dover was probably derived from a Merian plan. This was the first book devoted entirely to plans of British cities. This is one of a number of plans of American towns included in the very popular collections of maps published by the SDUK between and about COLE and j. An exact survey of the Cities of London and Westminster scale 26 in. Generally speaking, the earlier maps mentioned in this chapter are known only from unique or very rare copies and they are, therefore, outside the range of our collectors' maps, but it is felt that they represent another aspect of map history which most collectors will find worthy of note.
It is appropriate to consider first events in Italy, where more than anywhere else in Europe, a tradition of map making had taken root, especially in the northern cities. Portulan charts, of which we have already written, were in use by Italian seamen throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and probably earlier; the first translations of the Ptolemy manuscripts into Latin were made about the year in Florence and, above all, the intellectual and artistic atmosphere of the time provided the skills needed for drawing what may be best described as picture maps.
For the most part those that survive depict the chief cities of Northern Italy - Venice, Padua, Verona, Mantua - and the districts around them, often distinguishing between defended and undefended positions, no doubt intended for use in the wars between Venice and Milan. It seems likely that the Italian enthusiasm for map drawing in this manner influenced ideas in neighbouring states. In Germany, for example, in Ehrhard Etzlaub, noted for his later 'Rome Way' road map, produced large-scale maps of the surroundings of Nuremberg and other German cities.
In the following year the Nuremberg Chronicle with its very large number of woodcut illustrations - both bird's eye views and prospects - of European towns was published. The Kingdom of Wurttemberg was mapped in some detail round the year and Saxony soon afterwards, but Philipp Apian's map of Bavaria on 40 sheets was the first really large-scale map of a wide area: the original is lost but a reproduction on 24 sheets was published in 15 A later picture map of the Black Forest published in reissued in by Johann Georg Tibianus is a particularly pleasing example of its kind, so clear and self-explanatory that the use of a key to symbols is hardly necessary.
In the rather less sophisticated atmosphere of England, there seems to have been no tradition of map drawing such as had existed in Central Europe. Although surveys of estate and monastic lands were made in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries very few were accompanied by 'maps' in any useful sense and only a few dated prior to the year are known.
Soon after that year, however, Continental influences awakened interest in the technicalities of map making. A book by Gemma Frisius, A Method of Delineating Places, published in Louvain in 15 3 3 was followed in England by the work of William Cunningham, The Cosmographicall Glasse, in 1 5 5 9 and by Leonard Digges, Pantometria, in on the subject of surveying, land measurement, the use of theodolites and the principles of triangulation.
About the same time, subsequent to the dissolution of the monasteries in the , an increasing need arose for estate mapping on a wide scale and there were other projects such as maps of the coastline and fortresses made for Henry VIII and later for Lord Burghley in the face of threats of Spanish invasion. These, and no doubt many others of which we have no knowledge, must have been used by Laurence Nowell in compiling his 19 sheet map of England and Wales in 1 5 6 3 and by Christopher Saxton in his survey for the Atlas of England and Wales published in The challenge was too great to be ignored and Roy was charged with the work on this side of the Channel, his first task being to measure a base-line on Hounslow Heath, from which the triangulation was to be extended to Greenwich and Dover for the purpose of linking up with the French.
This was completed in , but Roy was far more interested in regarding the Hounslow Heath base as the start of a general survey of the British Isles, and so it was to prove. Unfortunately, Roy died in but detailed work was continued under the direction of the Duke of Richmond, the Master General of Ordnance who, in , formally set up a Survey Office in the Tower of London, then the Headquarters of the Board of Ordnance, to administer the whole task of surveying Britain.
At that time and in the following years under threat of Napoleonic invasion accurate mapping was regarded as a military requirement hence the assignment of the task to the Board of Ordnance and our use of the term today. The first objective was to produce a map on a scale of one inch to one mile, the scale which had been used for so many of the county maps in the previous thirty or forty years.
Work on the Trigonometrical Survey, as it was originally called, started in Kent and Essex using the data prepared by General William Roy, and by i a map of Kent on four sheets was ready for publ ication: this was printed by William Faden. No doubt these reasons and the time required to train staff to a sufficiently high standard resulted in indifferent work, and there were many inaccuracies in the earliest maps produced up to about These difficulties were emphasized by the high-quality maps which were being published at private expense in direct competition with the national survey.
As the accuracy and presentation of Ordnance maps improved, however, output from private sources declined and the official maps became the accepted standard. Their overall accuracy was quite remarkable and base lines 3 5 0 miles apart were found to differ by. These English maps cannot really be called largescale and indeed, in the years ahead, perhaps only the inset town plans on maps by John Speed and others merit that description: they, of course, covered only very small areas.
Later in the century between the years and the publication of the strip road maps in Ogilby's Britannia, the work of John Adams who contemplated a survey by triangulation of England and Wales, and the general survey of Ireland by William Petty all pointed the way to larger-scale mapping, but inspiration for greater projects was lacking and these advances were overshadowed by events in France.
In Chapter 14 we describe briefly the fundamental work in France of the Cassini family and Jean Picard, but the turbulent years of the i8th century were not conducive in any sense to international co-operation, certainly not in the field of cartography, and most nations were slow to adopt the new surveying techniques developed by the French.
The Russians were an exception: as early as Tsar Peter the Great embraced French ideas wholeheartedly as we have described in Chapter 19 , setting up an Academy of Sciences and beginning, with the help of French cartographers Joseph Nicolas and Louis Delisle, the enormous task of mapping Russia. Even with every encouragement, a real survey by triangulation was not started until and took many years to complete. This time scale was not unusual and the following dates give some idea of the long periods involved before complete sets of maps were published: Denmark , Sweden , Norway ici85o, the Austro-Hungarian Empire c.
In the British Isles map makers were just as complaisant and only the lack of accurate maps to meet military requirements in Scotland following the Jacobite rising stimulated official action. In the following years 5 5 practically the whole of Scotland was mapped on a scale of yards to one inch, but the maps were never printed. As a result of his practical experience in Scotland Roy became a determined advocate of mapping the rest of the British Isles in the same manner, but for various political and military reasons his advocacy met with no success until In that year the French Government suggested that the Observatories of Paris and Greenwich should be linked by Cassini's method of triangulation, the.
Of course, at this stage the survey was by no means complete and in , at short notice, most of the Army teams involved in field work were moved to Ireland to undertake a complete new survey there for fiscal purposes to replace the old "townland" system on which Irish taxation had long been based. For this purpose maps were required in great detail and they were drawn therefore to a scale of six inches to one mile: the resulting maps were so successful that, in , it was decided to use that scale for the rest of the survey of England, Wales and Scotland and, in spite of much controversy, to extend it still further to 2 5 inches to one mile.
Soon afterwards, in 1 8 5 3 , it was agreed internationally that the overall scale of 25 inches to one mile and its metric equivalent was necessary for a really adequate survey, and that remains the standard today. To meet the growing demand for maps the Ordnance Office developed new methods of printing and, from about onwards, maps in the one inch series appeared with the words 'Printed from an Electrotype" in the bottom margin. This was a method of duplicating the original engraved copper plates to enable printers to produce more copies without any significant loss of quality, besides reducing the price from around three shillings i?
The complete First Edition or Old Series as it has become known of one inch to one mile maps was finished by the New Series on the six and 2 5 inch scales, after much revision and resurveying, was finally completed in Printing was only in black and white but individual examples were sold hand-coloured, often in bound volumes, by many of the official agents. Then, late in the , printed partially coloured copies became available, followed in by full colour printing.
The period of seventy years to complete the one inch survey seems a long time, and one cannot but reflect on the extraordinary achievement of Christopher Saxton in completing his 'perambulations', surveying the length and breadth of England and Wales in the years MIBy contrast with the flamboyance of the engravings made for Saxton, the first Ordnance maps, although still engraved on copper plates, were plain, even austere; they bore no list of symbols, but the delineation of geographical features was beautifully clear.
The methods of shading and hachuring to show the heights of hills was not considered satisfactory and, starting in , they were eventually replaced by the use of contour lines as we know them. Basically, apart from constant revision and refinement, the maps remain the same today and few countries anywhere can boast of so complete and meticulous a system of mapping. In Italy the earliest packs were 'Tarot' cards consisting of twenty-two cards of allegorical designs used for fortune telling which later were combined with Oriental cards to make a set of seventy-eight, on which the game of 'Tarrochi' was based.
In England it is known that the use of cards was well established in , when an Act of Parliament banned their importation from the Continent. As might be expected, engravers and printers found great scope for their skills in the production of playing cards. One of the most noted, an anonymous German artist known as the 'Master of the Playing Cards', produced splendid sets, line engraved, in the years to and, in Italy, some of the earliest copperplate engravings were used for sets of Tarrochi cards; it is quite likely that the engravers of these sets also prepared the plates for the Ptolemaic maps issued in Rome in In the sixteenth century the pack of fifty-two cards, introduced in France, became the accepted standard and in times when there was little or no organized schooling they were widely used for educational purposes and were illustrated with texts on a great variety of subjects.
It was natural, therefore, to find among the beautifully illustrated cards produced in the days of the first Queen Elizabeth sets of cards showing a map of the British Isles and the counties of England and Wales. The earliest surviving packs of this type were published in and although their authorship is not known for certain they are attributed to a William Bowes. The maps depicted on them were evidently copies from Saxton's famous Atlas of and possibly were engraved by William Kip or Pieter van den Keere, noted map engravers of the period.
By a fortunate coincidence there are fifty-two counties in England and Wales and the maps were so arranged in. Gloccftct if the Chitf Citty, Built ly the. I and the largest XIII. Each card is divided into three parts showing the county name, the map and brief details. In spite of their small size each map shows the principal places in the county, identified by initial letters. There are only three packs of the cards known, with a further one dated It is thought that the maps drawn for these cards formed the basis for one of the first pocket atlases, producing in by.
Matthew Simmons, a London bookseller and printer who published many of Milton's works. Later, in , Robert Morden, who subsequently published notable atlases, produced a pack of cards in very similar form, the upper portion showing the suit, stencilled by hand, the title of the map and the designation of the card; the centre portion consisted of. In spite of limitations of size these. There was a second issue in and further issues in and showing additional towns and roads. Also in another pack of cards was compiled by W. Displayed below are some selected recent via Libri matches for books published in James II, King of England.
The debate at large, between the House of Lords and House of Commons [ Printed for J. Wickins; and to be sold by the Booksellers of, Attractive half calf antique, marbled boards, red morocco label gilt, compartments gilt with small tools. Very good. James II of England a. In Parliament the question was discussed whether he had forfeited the throne or had abdicated.
The present volume offers detailed arguments for the both, but ultimately the latter designation was agreed upon, and in a full assembly of the Lords and Commons, it was resolved in spite of James's protest "that King James II having endeavored to subvert the constitution of the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the government, and that the throne is thereby vacant.
ESTC R Check availability: eBay US. Berolini: Impensis Jeremiae Schrey, Feathered. Henrici J. Meyeri, If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us. Number of pages: S. Posthumously published. William Camden Edmund Gibson. London: Printed by F.
Mr Tibbits’s Catholic School (Plain Foxed Edition)
Collins, for A. Swalle, at the Unicorn at the Weft-end of St. Paul's Church-yard; and A. Churchil, at the Black Swan in Pater-nofter-Row, Full calf binding with a new spine and original title label. Plain end-papers. Contemporary blind-tooled panelled calf around a rectangular central panel. Spine has six raised-bands, gilt-ruled in compartments; red leather label with gilt title and ''.
Contents Summary: 12 of 50 maps, 7 of 8 Coin tables, page 62 replaced with facsimile on thick shiny paper, otherwise complete. Contents: [xxxvi], ii-cxcv, , paginated columns i. Followed by Annales of Ireland , Index  and Appendix  all unnumbered. Obit AD. Engraved by R. Title page. Dedication to Sir John Sommers, Kt. Check availability: AbeBooks. William Camden. London: Antiquarian book - for condition see below. Churchil, at the Black Swan in Pater-nofter-Row. Check availability: eBay UK. Kennett, White.
Parochial antiquities of Ambrosden, Burcester and other adjacent parts in the counties of Oxford and Bucks. Oxford: Printed at the Theatre, [xvi], ,  pages with 9 plates, 8 of which are folding. Some pages spotted and browned. In old full leather covered boards, later respine. Modern lettering label to the spine. Corners bumped and worn. End papers have been replaced in the past, covering an old bookplate of Wm Fermor of Tusmore, this is now uncovered but damaged - this bookplate has another older one beneath it. Ink owner's name, probably 19th century, to the front free end paper.
Plate facing page has old tape repaired tears. Pages near plates are more browned.. Full leather. Bookseller: Stephen Rench [United Kingdom]. Check availability: Biblio.
Cologne Amsterdam : Anonyme Bussy-Rabutin? Roger de Rabutin, comte de Bussy]. Le frontispice est curieux. Check availability: eBay FR. Richard Blackmore. London: The Black Swan, First Edition. Very Rare. A solid and attractive exceedingly rare First Edition of Blackmore's epic poem recounting and embellishment of the Legend of King Arthur.
Blackmore was both a popular writer and King William III's personal doctor, and this poem was written to support the King by linking him to one of the most famous English myths; the King loved this book and rewarded the author with a knighthood. The poem begins with Arthur returning to England to claim his throne after the Saxon overthrow of Uther.
It tells of Lucifer's attempt to defeat Arthur's purpose, with an exciting climax with the combat between Tollo and Arthur for the hand of Ethelina, and thus the control of the Kingdom. Johnson and John Jocke both expressed their admiration for this epic poem, and Johnson wrote a "Life of Blackmore". Verklaaring der letteren en getalen, aangewezen in het volmaakt schip. Amsterdam, Mattheus Woortman active: Folio broadsheet 50 x 30 cm , with an engraving of a ship image size: NCC 1 copy of Cleynhens ed. Very rare broadsheet with an engraving showing a 17th-century, three-masted Dutch merchant ship and two small sloops.
The sails of the ship are furled, giving a clear view of its rigging. Below the illustration are three columns with keys referring to over a parts of the ship and its rigging. The engraving and keys were first published in Allard's Nieuwe Hollandse scheeps-bouw , an essential primary source for the terminology and practice of ship-building in the Dutch golden age. Another edition of the present broadsheet was published around the same time by Bernard Cleynhens in Haarlem.
We could only locate three other copies worldwide of the two separately published broadsheet editions combined. The print was formerly in a passepartout, resulting in some minor difference in colour in the margins, otherwise in very good condition, with only some old folds and minor frays. Check availability: NVvA. Medicina mentis [et] Medicina corporis. Lipsiae [Leipzig], apud J.
La seconde partie a son titre propre : Medicina corporis seu cogitationes admodum probabiles de conservanda sanitate. Bookseller: Librairie Alain Brieux [paris, France]. Seitenzahl: S. Posthum erschienen. Check availability: eBay DE. Infime … [Click Below for Full Description]. Perugia: Constantini, First Edition of the first history of music in Italian.
Cortot, p. Wolffheim II, Gregory-Bartlett I, p. Hirsch I, Bontempi devoted most of his work to the music of the ancients, arguing that Greek music was not polyphonic, but he also touched on the theory and practice of Baroque music. His interest in theory had already been manifested in his Nova On the practical side, his account of the daily timetable of the pupils of Mazzocchi is justly famous: apart from singing practice it included music theory, counterpoint, letters and harpsichord playing or composition.
Full contemporary vellum with manuscript titling to spine. With numerous woodcut musical examples in diamond-head notation, tables, and diagrams throughout. Occaisonal historiated initials, head- and tailpieces. Binding slightly worn and soiled; free endpapers lacking; hinges reinforced with tape … [Click Below for Full Description]. Check availability: ABAA. Constantini, Perugia, Binding slightly worn and soiled; free endpapers lacking; hinges reinforced with tape. Some wear and browning; moderately foxed; occasional annotations in ink; title soiled and slightly frayed at upper edge.
His interest in theory had already been manifested in his Nova. On the practical side, his account of the daily timetable of the pupils of Mazzocchi is justly famous: apart from singing practice it included music theory, counterpoint, … [Click Below for Full Description]. Check availability: ZVAB. Binding slightly worn and soiled. Cortot p. Jaillot, Alexis Hubert. Elegant double-hemisphere world map with a dedication to the Sun King, Louis XIV, by Hubert Jaillot, featuring two decorative cartouches at the top and bottom. Centre left is the figure of Pheme, the goddess of fame and on the right is Nike the Goddess of strength, speed and victory, both holding the French Royal Arms of France Moderne.
The lower cartouche features Jaillot's royal privilege and is bordered on the right by the figure of Triton, a fish-tailed sea god who was the son of Poseidon, king of the seas. Triton stilled the waves with the blow of a conch-shell while to the left is the goddess Aphrodite Derceto represented as a mermaid holding a fish as a symbol of the fertility and life of water.
The map was engraved by Louis Cordier with the geographical information provided by Nicholas Sanson, Geographer to the King, and widely considered to be the father of French cartography. Jaillot played an important role in continuing Sanson's legacy. Following Sanson's death in , the business was inherited by his sons Adrien and Guillaume who partnered with Jaillot and his contemporary Pierre Duval to publish Sanson's maps.
The first such publication was Jaillot's Atlas Nouveau of The map shows Australia according to Tasman's first and second voyages and includes the earlier Dutch discoveries made by Houtman , van Leeuwin , Nuyts and de Wit The Trial Islands are also included but incorrectly placed. California is shown as an island. First state of this map published in Jaillot's Atlas Francois of In the early states such a … [Click Below for Full Description]. Some … [Click Below for Full Description]. Check availability: IOBA. Holy Bible. Oxford: the University Printers, English Bibles from the s are quite popular today because of their historical significance, as well as unmistakable beauty.
This , Oxford-published Bible was printed by the University Printers at Oxford and includes references in the margins throughout. Very Safe. Free Shipping Worldwide. Customer satisfaction is our priority! Notify us with 7 days of receiving, and we will offer a full refund without reservation! Check availability: AbeBooks Biblio. First Impression. A somewhat important work in Arthurian literature, and in speculative fiction in general.
Whilst it was written in support of William of Orange, it still serves to help maintain the most famous of English myths. So however tedious the text is I got through a couple of dozen pages , it is an important work and deserves to have its place retained in the study of the myth. Near fine, early if not contemporary boards - bound in full calf - rebacked somewhat recently with newer endpapers, though still themselves old. Some wear to the spine tips and where the rebacking has been undertaken. A couple of marginal notes. Leaves largely in good shape, tightly bound - a very attractive copy overall.
All items will be packed in bubble-wrap and either a cardboard book-wrap or a box where appropriate. If you'd like this service on cheaper items please utilise the expedited shipping.
Collection of Ephemera Relating to the Marketing of Books,
All photos are of the actual item for sale. Further photos can be provided. Returns accepted; buyer pays for return unless we're at fault. On the practical side, his account of the daily timetable of the pupils of Mazzocchi is justly famous: apart from singing practice it included music theory, counterpoin … [Click Below for Full Description].
Check availability: Direct From Seller. Bookseller: jleo [Drancy, FR]. Original folds faintly present; fine condition with strong vibrant ink. Flamsteed was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal. His main work was collecting improved observations and position measurements for stars, which led to the compilation of a large 3,star catalogue, "Historia Coelestis Britannica", and an atlas of stars, "Atlas Coelestis".
Included in his careful observations were some interesting discoveries and unrecognized pre-discovery observations, such as a pre-discovery sighting of Uranus in December He also laid the foundation stone for the Royal Greenwich Observatory. Signed material from Flamsteed is exceedingly rare. The document reads in full: "Mr. Snapes - We desire you to pay unto the Reverend Mr. Rec'd 29th of June of Edward Snapes the sum of nine pounds one shilling and six pounds in full of this order. John Flamsteed. He was responsible for several of the earliest recorded sightings of the planet Uranus, which he mistook for a star and catalogued as '34 Tauri'.
The first of these wa … [Click Below for Full Description]. Bookseller: University Archives [U. Mather William. With choice Presidents in the law, and Advice upon them. Together with many other useful things, to encourage Youth to the Love of Virtue, to please God. With an Alphabetical Table, for the ready finding of any Matte herein contained. Written in a plain Stile, whereby an ordinary Capacity may attain the same, without a Tutor. The fourth Edition, with very large Additions. By William Mather. Folding engraved map, 2 engraved plates one folding , many diagrams and illustrations, folding table.
Occasional light spotting, contemporary mottled calf, small splits to joints, light edge wear, 12mo, contained in modern cloth clamshell box. He was a churchman, but about he and his wife joined the Quakers.
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He became a teacher and kept a private school in Bedford. He also held an appointment as surveyor of highways and wrote a pamphlet 'On Repairing and Mending the Highways,' , in which he is described as 'late surveyor. It became extremely popular and ran through twenty-four editions. To the fourth edition, , are added some verses, and fourteen chapters written by Mather's son Samuel, a clever young man, who died at the age of twenty-two. Ledesma, Clemente de. Small quarto. Contemporary limp vellum, manuscript spine title.
Moderate edge wear, string ties lacking. No endpapers, first gathering nearly detached held by one cord. Faint dampstaining, disinfection tag on rear pastedown. A rare Catholic sacramental work printed by a noted woman printer in Mexico near the end of the 17th century. The printer, Maria de Benavides was the widow of printer Juan de Ribera, and continued her family's print shop in Mexico City until at least , after working in and managing the business since as early as She had inherited the print shop not only from her husband, but from her mother, Paula de Benavides.
The present work is one of a series of religious instruction manuals written by Father Clemente de Ledesma and printed by Benavides. OCLC records just fifteen copies worldwide. PALAU
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