To assess the level of risk, a DPIA must consider both the likelihood and the severity of any impact on individuals. A DPIA does not have to indicate that all risks have been eradicated. But it should help you document them and assess whether or not any remaining risks are justified. DPIAs are a legal requirement for processing that is likely to be high risk. But an effective DPIA can also bring broader compliance, financial and reputational benefits, helping you demonstrate accountability and building trust and engagement with individuals. A DPIA may cover a single processing operation or a group of similar processing operations.
A group of controllers can do a joint DPIA. A DPIA is not a one-off exercise. You should see it as an ongoing process that is subject to regular review. This means that although you have not yet assessed the actual level of risk, you need to screen for factors that point to the potential for a widespread or serious impact on individuals.
When considering if your processing is likely to result in high risk, you should consider the relevant European guidelines. These define nine criteria of processing operations likely to result in high risk. While the guidelines suggest that, in most cases, any processing operation involving two or more of these criteria requires a DPIA, you may consider in your case that just meeting one criterion could require a DPIA.
You should also think carefully about doing a DPIA for any other processing that is large scale, involves profiling or monitoring, decides on access to services or opportunities, or involves sensitive data or vulnerable individuals. Even if there is no specific indication of likely high risk, it is good practice to do a DPIA for any major new project involving the use of personal data. You can use or adapt the checklists to help you carry out this screening exercise.
A DPIA should begin early in the life of a project, before you start your processing, and run alongside the planning and development process. It should include these steps:. You must seek the advice of your data protection officer if you have one. You should also consult with individuals and other stakeholders throughout this process. The process is designed to be flexible and scalable. You can use or adapt our sample DPIA template , or create your own.
If you want to create your own, you may want to refer to the European guidelines which set out Criteria for an acceptable DPIA. As well as demonstrating compliance, publication can help engender trust and confidence. We would therefore recommend that you publish your DPIAs, where possible, removing sensitive details if necessary. You cannot begin the processing until you have consulted us. If you want your project to proceed effectively then investing time in producing a comprehensive DPIA may prevent any delays later, if you have to consult with the ICO.
Once we have the information we need, we will generally respond within eight weeks although we can extend this by a further six weeks in complex cases. Chapter6 : Prof. Chapter 7 : Prof. Koshy deals with the rationale, procedure and steps of conceiving, designing and introducing new information products and services.
Chapter 8 : Mr. Chin and Prof. Jain discuss the what, why, and how of marketing research along with brief descriptions, illustrations, and guidelines for planning and executing selected marketing research designs. Whyte and Prof. Sreenivas Rao and. CEIS was set up to enhance the capabilities of the Caribbean countries in energy information collection, storage and utilization for optimum conservation and utilization of the region's energy resources.
The other case presents the market research conducted for assessing suitability and utility of CD-ROM publishing, a modern information technology, and the process of developing suitable marketing plans for the same in developing countries. This guide is an outcome of a workshop held at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad in February , where project leaders of the International Development Research Centre, Canada, expressed the need for a marketing manual for librarians and information professionals.
We are very grateful to him and to IDRC. In August , authors of the guide and other professionals discussed the draft threadbare. We are thankful to the following for their contributions to the guide by. Karnik, Librarian, British Library, Ahmedabad; and. Our special thanks to all of them. Naidu assisted us at various stages of the project. Ms Sarala Nair and Mr R. Mahadeva Iyer shared the major responsibility of typing the manuscript. The staff of the Vikram Sarabhai Library helped us at all stages of the project.
They all deserve our thanks. He has been responsible for designing the marketing strategy and plan of CRIQ for its Business and Industry information services. Barbara Gumbs was Head of the Technical Information Service at the Caribbean Industrial Research Institute, and has done consulting assignments for setting up information systems and developing marketing strategies and plans. Abhinandan K. Jain is professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad in the area of marketing. His specialization is in the field of quantitative models in marketing, strategic marketing, international marketing.
Abraham Koshy is professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad in the area of marketing. His specialization is in product and brand management, international marketing, and strategic marketing. Rama Rao, is professor at the Indian Institute of management, Ahmedabad in the area of computers and Information Systems. His specialization is in management information systems, DSS and software project management.
His specialization is in communications. He is now among the visiting faculty at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad and consultant to a business organization in Ahmedabad. He is now a private consultant to libraries and information Services. Introduction to Marketing of Information Products and Services. In the last decade, significant changes have taken place all over the world, and they have been posing challenges to various professions and professionals. First, the information revolution, triggered by personal computers and networking, has been one major change, which brought about a revolution in the information profession.
Libraries, as we know of as buildings with stacks of books and periodicals and signs of 'silence' all around, may become extinct in the coming decades. One may not run to the library or a librarian for information, but to one's own computer. Information would be at finger tips rather than in stacks. As the boundaries and utility of information, and the speed and quantity of handling it expand, the initial costs of hardware and software will increase dramatically.
New economies of scale would have to be discovered to make this investment economical. Second, the winds of globalization, marketization, and privatization have been sweeping away the long-held political and economic beliefs. Governments and social sponsors have been propagating that social institutions—be they hospitals, schools, colleges, and libraries—become self-sufficient if they are to purposefully work and demonstrate their relevance and competence to their clients. Institutional excellence will now have to be achieved through competition, that too worldwide, rather than through rules, regulations and controls.
The age-old generosity for the socially desirable institutions is drying up, because of the change in the political outlook and the economic squeeze that the governments, donors, and sponsors are facing. Librarians and information managers, therefore, are being asked to generate revenue to become self-sustaining as much as possible. Third, countries are clamouring for immediate fulfillment of ever-rising social and economic expectations, and are therefore asking what information can do for the overall national development.
Developing countries are no longer interested in information for the sake of information, knowledge for the sake of knowledge, or education for the sake of education. The new thought wave is that information is power only if you use it, not if you store it. Information appears to be the 'life saver' for the developing world. As a consequence of the radical changes in the last decade— information revolution, globalization, marketization, privatization, and using information for development—the clientele interested in information services and products has been on the increase.
Till now, librarians and information managers have been happy in catering to the limited clientele of the school, college, university, research organization, government department, or public organization that has sponsored them. Increasingly, clients outside these limited groups are equally interested in information, for instance, practitioners of any profession and planners at national and organizational levels.
Business and commercial organizations have become conscious of information as a resource. The information age has truly arrived. So far, libraries and librarians existed in islands. Whatever little networking existed was through the exchange of books and periodicals—that too at the minimum level. But today's computer and information technology allows for, not only, a huge possibility for networking among information centres, but also for making information available to a larger clientele than the existing one.
Moreover, the new technology will allow creation of newer information products and services, and make them available quickly. Constraints of the print medium no longer exist. Increase in clientele, their variety, their demands, and their expectations. Increase in the initial or capital cost of information and information technology, and the need to leverage the technology and find new levels of economies of scale to serve the increasing potential clientele.
Drying up of the public sponsorship and subsidy and the need to find alternate sources of revenue. Complexity in ways of identifying clients and their requirements, and servicing them. Librarians and information managers are, therefore, called upon to show their initiative and entrepreneurship. Time has come to rethink, shed many old beliefs, and find new ways of doing things. The traditional concept of a library or an information centre as a social service for knowledge, for the sake of knowledge, and library, for the sake of library, has outlived its need.
The warehouse and custodian perspective of librarians and information managers needs a change. Preparing information products and services only when asked for, has to give in to a more systematic anticipation and research of the future requirements of different clients, leading to the preparation of appropriate products and services and making these available to the clients. Membership-patronage-subsidy comfort has ended. Each generation of librarians must define for itself and its users what the library is and how it will add value to the information exchanges of its community.
Libraries and librarians have traditionally added value to these exchanges in three major ways. They have provided physical access to information, they have organized this information for use, and they have provided assistance in locating and utilizing this information In this context, Mary C. What will this library look like?
What services, programmes, and materials will be offered? How can we find answers to important questions about such things as: the relationship of access to ownership; the appropriate content and extent of collections; the right mix of services for a specific community of potential clients; and sources of adequate support for library activities? In order to address these concerns, we must first determine what the role of the library is to be.
What is the business of the library? It is the answer to this question which is the crucial first step in defining the future. In the early years, ISSD Information Sciences and Systems Division of the IDRC concentrated on the development of the basic capacities of information and documentation centres to produce bibliographies, abstracts, and later to computerize these systems. Relatively little attention was paid to issues such as the use of information and sustainability of information systems and services, and impact of information on development.
A large proportion of the projects aimed at serving researchers in research organizations, and the information products were mainly bibliographies, newsletters, and similar products. During the last decade, more attention was given to the identification of user needs and the promotion of information products and services. At the same time, information projects evolved to target decision-makers at government level, local communities, small scale industries, and other groups of users.
Bibliographies did not meet their needs. Therefore, user needs surveys were required in these user communities to determine their specific needs, and new approaches in information delivery had to be adopted. The cost increases in accessing information through on-line databases, purchasing databases on diskettes or CD-ROM, and acquiring journals, and the need to purchase and update information technology, such as computer equipment, to provide appropriate information services are forcing information and documentation centres and libraries to charge for some information services to recover, at least in part, the cost of providing information and to re-inject the funds generated for updating information or equipment.
Such measures were initiated several years ago with charges for photocopy services, on-line access, and subscriptions to newsletter and other publications. In short, the time has come to get at the sine qua non of information. Libraries and information centres need to ask, what business are they in?
Is it information sorting, storage, securing, and retrieving it if someone wants it?
the marketing audit handbook the art of asking the right questions Manual
Or is it something beyond it—to look for needs, wants, and demands of various clients, innovate products, and reach out to the client rather than wait for the client to come. What role would information managers like to play in this transition from an industrial to an information society? In its new strategy, which was implemented some three years ago, the ISSD decided to give importance to the use of information, the long-term sustainability of information services and systems, the impact of information on development, and therefore marketing of information products and services.
In the early conceptualization of a library's and information centre's business, Dr S R Ranganathan had the concept of customer orientation embedded into it. The five laws were:. First law : 'Books are for use. Second law : 'Every reader his book. Third law : 'Every book its reader. Fourth law : 'Save the time of the reader. Fifth law : 'A library is a growing organism.
Emphasis is on comprehensive and evolutionary growth. A focus on customer needs second law and wants through saving of time fourth law is clearly emphasized in these laws, as far back as Also, the third law relates to finding a reader, probably implying that the library should reach out to the customers. A closer examination indicates that modifications are needed in the interpretation of the laws. Firstly the definition of a customer, only as a reader, needs to be widened to include the purpose of reading and ways of using the information.
Thus, though customer focus has long been advocated in the library profession, it may be refined to suit the current context of the market. Marketing is a stance and an attitude that focuses on meeting the needs of users. Marketing is a means of ensuring that libraries, librarians, and librarianship are integrated into both today's and tomorrow's emerging global culture. Marketing is not separate from good practice.
It is good practice. It marketing is the whole business seen from the point of view of its final result, that is, from the customer's point of view Business success is not determined by the producer but by the customer. Philip Kotler, the marketing guru, calls Marketing 'a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value with others. Further, Kotler defines Marketing Management as 'the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods, services, and ideas to create exchanges with target groups that satisfy customer and organizational objectives.
The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists in determining the needs and wants of target market and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors The marketing concept rests on four main pillars, namely target market, customer needs, coordinated marketing, and profitability.
Most organizations in general, and those involved in information and development areas in particular, may not have profit as their sole objective. The fourth pillar of the marketing concept may need to be changed to 'achievement of organizational objective s. Marketing offers both a theory and a process by which libraries can link products, results, and roles. Marketing can assist libraries in determining their future and in identifying quality products—services, programs, and materials. A marketing audit and the resulting plan can contribute to a library's ability to find a niche in the present as well as in the future and to fill that niche by an optimal allocation of resources.
A marketing orientation can assist libraries in defining their role and in guaranteeing their future. Marketing provides a theoretical framework within which to address the specific library and information science questions facing public, school, special, and academic libraries in both the public and private sectors.
What the library will look like and what it will offer as products can be determined through the use of modern marketing theory and practice. The marketing approach in managing a library or an information centre, therefore, involves the process of asking questions and seeking information on the following four-fold dimensions to evolve an organizational strategy:. What is the target public or audience and what are their needs, wants, and demands?
What adds value to whatever they are trying to achieve or perform? What is the competition? And what kind of support could be provided to the client in using the information effectively? How should it be promoted to selected customers to communicate the desired position? What should be the organizational image, and how should it be projected to support the product image?
How should the requirements of the target audience be assessed and value delivered to the customers? What kind of customer contact personnel and systems should be employed to assess the requirements? What should be the mechanism to constantly update systems and recruit, train, and motivate customer contact personnel so as to assess and deliver the requirements of target customers? How should the internal organization be oriented to serve the external target segments and how should customer contact personnel assess, produce and deliver the required products and services?
What kind of planning, control and organizational mechanism should be set up to achieve all the above steps? In short, the marketing approach provides a manager the mental map to think systematically about:. Target audience, competition and own distinctive offer. Design of four Ps i. Systems to interface with target audience. Planning, organization and control of all the above. The marketing approach can be used to make the existing planning process of a library or an information centre more rigorous. Darlene E. Weingand of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, see Fig.
Once this fusion of planning and marketing takes place, a time would come when the annual reports of libraries and information centres would look like that of any business organization indicating the targets set at the beginning of the year and the performance achieved rather than, a mere indication of how many books have been acquired, how many have been catalogued, and how many new members came into the fold. Moreover, organizational planning and performance evaluation will lead to individual staff planning and performance evaluation which, in turn, would lead to the much needed vitality in the information profession and management.
The fusion of planning and marketing and its positive aftereffects would lead to the organic and dynamic sustenance, and growth, of libraries and information centres. At least, a map of the organizational functioning would be available to guide the information managers to monitor and intervene as and when needed.
What inhibits the librarians and information managers from adopting the marketing approach? The same reasons which inhibit any other social organization or profession. Kotler writes:. The resistance is especially strong in service industries where marketing is being introduced for the first time, for instance, in law offices, colleges, hospitals, or government agencies. Colleges have to face the hostility of professors, and hospitals have to face the hostility of doctors, because each group thinks that marketing their service would be degrading.
It may be because they misunderstand marketing and believe it to be simply another term for public relations and publicity. At another level it may be because of a real or perceived lack of resources to devote to marketing processes and the coordination of a marketing approach even when many of these processes, if not the organizational orientation, are already part of their organizational culture and operation.
Lastly, libraries may not have adopted marketing because of a concern with the basic tenet of marketing theory that moves the locus of control from the librarian-expert to the clients A societal-marketing orientation as described by Kotler and interpreted by Baker provides for both the satisfaction of immediate client needs and the long-term needs of society which might be identified by experts or, in this case, librarians.
Because most librarians and documentalists have not been trained with the concept of 'marketing,' the introduction of marketing to information services has not always been easy. There is also some reluctance to market because many documentalists and librarians still feel information should be free. In most cases, because of lack of expertise in marketing, documentation and information centres have difficulty in introducing the marketing concept which starts by the identification of the potential users to fulfil the mandate of the service, the identification of their needs, etc.
I visited some documentation centres in Vietnam But there are information and documentation centres having difficulties in promoting their information services and products even when they are free. The project leaders confirmed that they have a lot of difficulty in developing strategies, not only to generate revenues, but simply to reach their target users.
I saw the same situation in Africa at the end of last year. The lack of use of marketing concepts and tools in libraries and information centres, according to Seetharama may be attributable to the following reasons:. Confusion at the conceptual level among librarians and information scientists that marketing is nothing but promotion and sales. Lack of a definite marketing policy—end user policy, product policy, distribution policy, tariff policy, services policy—either at the national or at the local level. User Needs Assessment Studies are inadequate due to methodological deficiencies and due to the fact that they are not carried out on a continuing basis.
Lack of proper market research and segmentation studies. Product development and targeting leaves much to be desired due to the absence of market research and segmentation. Reluctance on the part of the users to pay for information services resulting in the adoption of economy measures. As a consequence, the physical quality and get-up of products are adversely affected. Evaluation of information services and products is conspicuous by its absence Gopalkrishnan, Marketing concepts are either not taught or least emphasized in library schools.
In most cases, it does not form part of the curriculum. Information is a low priority item of users, and the motivation to share is even lower. Attitudewise, information professionals, like many other professionals, have been inward looking—happy with satisfying a limited clientele, that too when asked for, and happy with jealously guarding their importance. To be outward looking, from the client's point of view would require them to make a degrees turnaround. Structurewise, the staff which comes into contact with the public or clients are the counter clerks and less frequently, the reference librarian and the librarian.
As a result, there is no staff to reach out and capture the point of view of the client. To introduce any such layer would be resisted from the existing staff and the turf holders. Moreover, the libraries and information centres are a part of a large organization which does not follow the marketing approach as well. Also, traditional security of the job, common to public institutions, and lack of involvement of professionals in the management of the library or the information centre, in developing countries, is conducive to a no-change syndrome.
Systemwise, libraries and information centres, so far, have been more storage, security, and audit conscious. They do not allow the client or the client's point of view inside the system. Guarding or protecting the information is more important than utilizing it for the satisfaction of its clientele. Therefore, any changes in the system to make it more client or service oriented, would be to ask for both attitudinal as well as structural changes. Environmentwise, the culture, especially in the developing countries, still believes that information should be free and should be sought by clients themselves.
Dependence on government and private largesse in many areas is taken for granted. There is no attempt at seeking out clients. Marketing and payment for a variety of services, like education or information, is considered infra-dig both for the giver and the taker. A library is a social and service institution providing information to its members. Its traditional functions include selection, acquisition, storage, processing, circulation, and reference.
Over a period of time, due to change in the nature of demands by the clients, libraries have expanded their functions to include documentation and document delivery systems. Translation, editing, publishing, and reprographic services have been lately added to the traditional services mentioned in the table. Only limited members of the staff interact with customers and that too, mostly at the initiative of the customers themselves.
The five laws of library science Ranganathan did imply a sharp focus on customer. However, a closer examination of the laws reveals that the focus is on a customer who came to the library rather than, the library reaching out to the customer. Seetharama points out:. The concept of marketing of information services and products in India can be said to be still in infancy. This is in spite of the fact that the doyen of Library Science, Dr S R Ranganathan had focussed on the need for marketing though, perhaps, he did not use the term when he enunciated the Five Laws of Library Science in As a matter of fact, the Five Laws can be used as a basis for the development of marketing principles in the context of libraries and information centres.
Seetharama further points out the need for strategic intervention to adopt the marketing approach, for improvement in providing service to customers:. T ABLE 1. Critical review of area, critical compilation of data, criteria for experimentation, recommendations, solutions to immediate problems, correlation of data, prediction of properties. As an immediate response, new services and products were designed and developed. Ironically, however, the users felt that they were not being served adequately and appropriately. This led to an in-depth analysis which revealed, surprisingly, that the services were not user oriented largely because of the non-involvement of users in their design and also that the extent of use made of these services was unknown to the generators of the information services.
In other words, libraries and information centres instead of being 'responsive' tended to become unresponsive organizations. This, perhaps, is true of many a library and information centre in this sub-continent. Probably, by designing and developing an appropriate marketing strategy, the situation could be altered and improved upon. Therefore, any change in approach would have to be thought through, planned for, and implemented over a long period. Staff, managers, and professionals would have to be reoriented and trained to start thinking afresh. Along with external marketing, internal marketing and alliances are equally important, i.
Moreover, information is a commodity which requires constant interaction and interpretation in its use. Hence interactive marketing, i. Therefore, the total preparation—preparation of the library, its sponsoring organization, and its clientele—is very important for the changeover. In this process of external, interactive, and internal marketing, the following strategic needs have to be kept in focus:. Reaching financial viability. In information, as in education, broadcasting, or print media, it will become difficult to achieve total financial self-sufficiency through the generation of revenue from the immediate user, alone, in the near future.
Choosing appropriate research methodologies
The client cannot afford all the costs really involved even with the processing of information, leave alone generation of information. Therefore, it would become essential to decide, in each case, what should be the contribution of the client, the library or the information centre, and the society.
Increasing the clientele and the reach to them. Unless information is used, the question of impact of information on the development of the individual, organization, and country does not arise. And the use of information has become essential for the survival and progress of nations. Innovating products and preparing flexible products to suit various clients becomes important because of the nature of the product, i.
Dr Yoneji Masuda identified four unique qualities of information:. Information is inconsumable, untransferable, indivisible, and accumulative. Goods disappear through use, information is used but not consumed. Goods are moved from A to B. When information is moved, it stays at A as well as moving to B. Goods can be divided and used, but information, as opposed to data, can only be used as a set. Goods are accumulated by not being used, information accumulates through use. Hence, packaging and repackaging of information becomes important to suit various client needs, wants and demands.
Moreover, a library or an information centre is a service organization. Therefore, innovating and providing new services is as important as the innovation and providing of new products. Orienting, acculturizing, and training the staff. Services are not tangible. Therefore, they require personal interaction. Some libraries and information centres who have become conscious of the need for marketing the information products and services, have acquired a marketing department or a marketing manager to perform the task of external marketing. But this is not enough. The personnel who interact with the client system also need to be oriented.
The attitudinal change would have to come across the total management and staff of the immediate and the parent organization, and not merely the marketing department or marketing personnel. Without this overall change, the marketing department or marketing manager may not be able to achieve much. Seizing the opportunity provided by the computer and information technology, Dr Masuda added: "Information technology adds four more properties to information: concentration, dispersion, circulation, and feedback.
Measuring the impact of information on development.
Only by demonstrating the need to use information for and its impact on development, libraries and information centres would be able to persuade the organization and the community to bear part of the costs of information. In essence, marketing provides conceptual and analytical tools to plan and manage the information organization for achieving the financial viability or balance, as well as other objectives, germane to the business and profession of libraries and information centres. Therefore, marketing is not merely a tool to achieve economic results but to achieve total information results.
Information professionals have been accustomed to utilizing user studies. The five laws of library science inculcate the customer perspective. Now, only a jump is needed for the librarians and information managers to use marketing effectively so as to meet the challenges facing them.
Bushing, Mary C. Jain et al. Ranganathan, S. Seetharama, S. Vespry, Arthur H. Weingand, Darlene E. Rama Rao and Abhinandan K. Marketing, as discussed in the previous chapter, is a process that can help managers of libraries and information centres in achieving their objectives of improving access to their clientele, increasing the satisfaction of their clients and reaching financial self-sufficiency.
The marketing process, in case of libraries and information centres, implies that these objectives be achieved by offering improved and competitive information products and services. As already discussed in the previous chapter, the importance of understanding customer requirements has long been felt by the library profession. However, creating and offering information products and services to satisfy customer requirements, has not been very effective.
An improvement in the management of this process is likely to yield impressive dividends. Thus, marketing the process of creating, offering, and exchanging products and services which meet organizational objectives, as well as customer requirements has great relevance for libraries and information centres. This chapter deals with the process of marketing management as well as the underlying key concepts therein. Marketing Management is defined as definition adopted by American Marketing Association in , as reported in Kotler, :. Marketing Management is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods, services, and ideas to create exchanges with target groups that satisfy customer and organizational objectives.
This definition has several terms which need to be understood. To begin with, it is essential to understand the two key purposes of the process of marketing. The first purpose relates to achieving organizational objectives and the second purpose relates to achieving customer satisfaction. Both these purposes need to be achieved simultaneously.
The second element of the definition relates to preparing and executing a marketing plan. This process consists of 'analysing marketing opportunities, researching and selecting target markets, designing marketing strategies positioning , planning marketing programmes, and organising, implementing and controlling the marketing effort' Kotler Each of the terms of this definition i. For example, concepts of consumer behaviour and macro environment are crucial to understand the nature and size of the available market opportunity, both in the present and in the future. The size of a specific opportunity over time is hypothesized to follow a pattern called market life cycle.
Also, the demand for specific types of products and services, catering to a specific market opportunity follows another similar pattern called product life cycle. The competition for the identified opportunities is influenced by the stage of market life cycle and the stage of the product life cycle.
Competition also influences the design of successful marketing programmes. Planning and implementation of marketing programmes for products and services, are significantly influenced by which stage of the market life cycle they are positioned. Thus, the concepts of buyer behaviour, market life cycles, and macro environment are critical for preparing and executing a better marketing plan. A specific product or service offered by a library or information centre would compete with other similar products or services to satisfy the requirements of target customers.
Thus, the concepts of assessing and predicting competition would be useful to arrive at better strategies and plans for the products and services. Planning and executing a marketing plan is not a mechanical exercise, but should be based on a philosophy or an orientation towards the market. Six orientations have been identified in marketing literature which guide marketing efforts. These are production orientation, product orientation, selling orientation, marketing orientation, and societal marketing orientation.
An understanding of these orientations would help to make an appropriate assessment of the market, from the point of view of an organization. However, the marketing orientation seems to be, by far, the most promising one for achieving organizational objectives.
Marketing orientation, particularly in the marketing of services, implies three types of marketing programmes. One is for the external customers, called external marketing, and consists of product, price, promotion, and distribution elements. The second is for the internal clients library staff called internal marketing and which consists of appropriate programmes and mechanisms to prepare the intended organization, including staff, to deliver the marketing programme to the external market. The third is to manage the interface between the service provider staff and the customer—interactive marketing—and is more crucial for the marketing of services.
These must be in conformity with the missions and goals of the parent organization. Goals must also be set from a strategic or long-term point of view, as well as from operational or short-term point of view, for drawing up a relevant direction for the organization. Specific marketing goals must be set up for achieving the purpose of customer satisfaction. Similarly, financial goals must be set up for achieving financial self-sufficiency. In addition, specific objectives may, if necessary, include goals related to the development of resources, organization, processes, and technologies.
Number of copies of Index of Management Literature subscribed by target customers. Number of copies of the IML subscriptions as a percentage of the total number of subscriptions of indices of management literature. Purchase of the IML as a percentage of the total purchase of indices by an organization. Financial goals of an organization could be to earn more revenue, obtain better return on investment, and achieve certain cash flow levels, etc.
Most organizations have more than one goal. For deriving appropriate directions, the goals should be consistent with each other, have a hierarchy among themselves, be realistic to achieve and, as far as possible, be quantitative for measuring the achievements. The goals for the above functions should be consistent with and subordinate to the overall goals of the library. Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad is a premier national institute for education, training, and research in the field of management.
The objectives of IIMA are:. Train young men and women for careers in management, and related fields, in any form of organization. Improve the decision-making skills and administrative competence of practising managers. Create knowledge through research, both applied and conceptual, relevant to management and its underlying disciplines, and disseminate such knowledge through publications.
Assist organizations in solving their management problems by providing consulting services. Collaborate with other institutions in India and abroad to further their objectives, and, as necessary, to assist in institution building. The mission of Vikram Sarabhai Library at IIMA is to provide support to teaching, research, training, and consulting activities at IIMA and establish a network to serve the management and business literature needs of management institutions, businesses and industry.
Specific objectives of the VSL are as follows:. Serve the information needs of management students, teachers and researchers, and managers in organizations. Prepare information products and services, including value-added ones, and cases. Strengthen the resource base, and provide organizations an access to international data bases for management information.
Collect, process and disseminate information on various sectors of the economy and conduct industry and sector studies. Establish a network of management and other allied libraries to strengthen the resource base. The above objectives provide only broad direction. Each of the above dimensions may be quantified so as to help formulation, implementation, and evaluation of both long-term and short-term goals, say years and 1 year, respectively. While libraries and information centres would like to achieve their objectives, they must first understand their customers' requirements.
This would help them to offer the products which satisfy the customers' requirements, better than their competitors. The key concepts which are central to the understanding of customers' requirements are: need, want, and demand and customer value, cost, and satisfaction. The starting point for any marketing activity is the assessment of customer need. A need arises whenever a customer feels that some of his basic requirements, are not being met. For example, a manager may feel that he requires needs information to improve his knowledge.
The customer may have a number of options for satisfying his need. A preferred option is called a want. Wants, therefore, are desired specific satisfiers of 'needs'. In case of managers whose need is information, several options like journals, magazines, books, etc. One of the preferred options, like a journal, would be termed his want. A demand for a product or service wanted by a customer would arise if the customer is able to acquire and utilize the same. Thus, wants become demands when supported by purchasing power, ability and infrastructure needed to buy and use them.
Traditionally, librarians assess customer requirements through personal interactions with by customers and by conducting surveys. Both these methodologies are quite useful for assessing needs, wants, and demands. In these assessments, an attempt is made to understand the need, as well as the degree to which they are not satisfied by the existing products or services.
Wants for specific options, are estimated through an assessment of the degree of preference, for the options under consideration. Demand for a specific option is assessed by measuring the buying intentions at different price levels. In a market research on information products and services conducted at IIM, Ahmedabad Jain, Rao and Jambhekar, , it was found that managers need require conceptual and theoretical information for effective decision making.
Non-availability of such information may lead to poor performance, less chance of advancement in career, or a feeling that he is not able to perform at his best. Such information is available in books and in articles in journals. The latter were used because of ease of access to them.
It was however found that these products were not preferred because of lack of timely availability of the original articles. A new product 'Index of Management Literature' IML one each in each of the different functional areas was designed and tested in the research. This product was based on the literature available in the libraries of premier management institutions in India.
The original articles could, therefore, be provided at a short notice. Analysis of the research data revealed that the managers preferred the new product over the existing ones. Therefore, the managers wanted the new product. In the research conducted, a significant proportion of the managers had expressed an intention to subscribe to hard copy form of the product, IML, at a price of Rs per year per functional area. Through the research, their paying ability could also be assessed by knowing their budget for acquiring such products.
The number of managers who had expressed an inclination to buy, and who also had adequate budgetary provisions for buying such products, constituted the demand for the IML. While the electronic form of the IML is another feasible product, the demand for it would be restricted to those managers whose organizations had good computing and communications infrastructure. Those who did not have such infrastructure would not be able to use the product and so may not constitute demand.
One of the ways in which a customer could feel satisfied is that the net derived value net customer value of the offer is positive. The net customer value can be defined as the difference between the total customer value and the total customer cost Kotler, The components of customer value are typically: product value, service value, personnel value, and image value. Typical components are monetary price, time cost, energy cost, and psychic cost.
By using this product a manager would derive the functional value of access to management literature product value , additional value if it is delivered within the promised time service value , value of using a product from a premier institute image value and the value of interacting with the alumni of the institute personnel value.
Thus, the total value derived by the customer would be the sum of these four types of values derived by him, by using IML. Any organization needs to develop its own way of looking at its market. The marketing literature has identified the following ways of looking at the market market orientations : Production orientation, Product orientation, Selling orientation, Competitive orientation, Marketing orientation, and Societal Marketing orientation.
However, in large number of developing countries where competition is growing, the dominant and most important orientation which is suitable, and which is being advocated in marketing literature including literature on marketing of information products and services , is the marketing orientation. This section first describes the various organizational orientations and then provides an understanding of customer orientation. In this approach, the orientation of the organization is to produce more, and gain efficiencies in production and distribution. The assumption behind such an orientation is that the consumers are interested in the availability of the given product.
The market may be expanded significantly by offering the product at a lower price. For the organization to offer the product at a lower price, it adopts strategies to lower its costs. This approach is quite suitable in a situation where the demand of a given product outstrips the supply. At the same time, in a market where the supply is more than the demand, a mere cut in prices by reducing costs, may or may not be of any help. This orientation is adopted when the company believes that buyers admire and buy technologically superior and well made products.
Product oriented companies often work with the assumption that the company can always design, and offer, better products even without seeking customer inputs. Such organizations are, therefore, likely to be technology oriented.
This orientation would be beneficial as long as technology improvements are significant. These improve ents can be used in designing technologically superior products which would then offer significant value addition to customers. In this orientation, the organization believes that customers would ordinarily not buy their products, and there is a need for aggressive promotion to increase the sales, so as to generate adequate returns on the capacities setup.
An organization may choose sales orientation if it observes that consumers do not choose their company's products, if left alone. Therefore, aggressive selling and promotional efforts are required for improving sales performance. Managers of selling-oriented organizations undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort. The efficiency of this effort is always questionable, particularly if compared to the customer orientation.
It is, therefore, desirable to avoid this orientation. In this, the organization focusses primarily on identifying competitors, understanding their strategy, their objectives, their strengths and weaknesses, etc. Basically, the organization closely tracks its competitors' moves and then decides its own, on the basis of these.
Obviously, this would be helpful if the new strategy is also satisfying the customers' requirements. Market oriented organizations aim at achieving their goals by determining the needs and wants of target customers markets , and by delivering the satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than their competitors.
This is a highly desirable orientation in the present context of relatively free and increasing competition. Excessive emphasis on market orientation has been found to be detrimental to the society at large. For example, use of personalized transport in major urban towns results in noise and air pollution, which is detrimental to society and environment. Thus, an orientation which encompasses customer orientation and which also preserves or enhances the consumer's and society's well-being, is termed as societal orientation.
Each of the above orientations have their pros and cons. On the whole, in a shortage situation, a production orientation may be better; in a rapidly changing technological situation, a product orientation may be better; or in a situation where customer orientation is leading to social ills, a societal orientation may be more suitable. The next section further expands the concepts relating to customer orientation. The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving organizational goals consists in determining the need and wants of target markets and delivering the desired satisfactions more effectively and efficiently than competitors.
There are four key elements of the marketing concept: target market, satisfying needs and wants co-ordinated marketing, and organizational goals. The marketing concept emphasizes the need to focus, explicitly, on the selection of the market s to be served by the organization. This makes sense in, at least, two important ways.
Firstly, no organization is going to have large enough resources to cater to the needs of the total market. Even for commercial organizations, it is quite difficult to assess the nature of needs and wants which customers would like satisfied. For most of their clients, the broad information requirement may be generally known.
The specific needs can be quite variable and may be assessed through interactions with the customer called interactive marketing—defined later. Through such interaction, important needs, specific to a customer at a particular time and situation, could be identified. As explained earlier, satisfaction can be judged through assessing the difference between the total customer value and the total customer cost. A sharp focus on understanding the needs and wants of target customers, may help the library in enhancing the total customer value, by providing the needed information in time thereby, reducing the energy, time, and psychic costs.
In most organizations, the marketing function is supposed to be performed by the marketing staff. However, it is a known fact that unless the production department supplies goods of acceptable quality in time, marketing cannot take place. This is more so in libraries where the marketing department, itself, may not exist.
Therefore, for delivering satisfaction, three levels of co-ordination may be needed.
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The first is among the marketing functions themselves. The second is across all the functions of the organization. Thirdly and finally, with any other organization—be it the supplier, distributor, or any other participant in the external marketing environment. Organizational goals have already been dealt with earlier in the chapter. It is sufficient to mention here, that one of the important goals of libraries is to become increasingly self-supportive.
This goal can be better satisfied if customers with higher sales and profit potential are selected, and if higher value needs of such customers are targeted. This would lead to higher net revenues i. However, one must realize that higher net revenue is an outcome of the better satisfaction of needs of better paying customers and is not an end in itself.
Further, other goals of the organization, like, in case of a library in an educational institution, serving the students of the institute where and for whom the library was set up though less resource generating, may be an important goal and may need to be pursued with vigour. Thus, clarity of organizational goals and their prioritization would go a long way in correctly allocating scarce organizational resources.
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