Giles, Herbert A. Revised edition. This Victorian translation, first published in the late s, greatly impressed Oscar Wilde, and is still an eloquent introduction to the world of Master Zhuang. Graham, A. The Book of Lieh-tzu. London: John Murray, Chicago: Open Court, One of the most scintillating studies of early Chinese thought ever written. Henricks, Robert G. New York: Ballantine, New York: Columbia University Press, Ivanhoe, Philip J.
The Daodejing of Laozi. New York: Seven Bridges, Julien, Stanislaus, tr. Lao Tseu, Tao Te King. Paris, This was the version made by the early French sinologue, as used by Tolstoy. Karlgren, Bernhard. Meticulous reconstruction of the rhymes. Komjathy, Louis. Leiden, Netherlands, and Boston: Brill, Daoism: A Guide for the Perplexed. London: Bloomsbury Academic, Lau, D.
Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching. London: Penguin Classics, Also various later bilingual editions from the Chinese University Press. Legge, James, tr. The Texts of Taoism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Le Guin, Ursula K. Seaton, trs. Boston: Shambhala, Fabrizio Pregadio. Mountain View, CA: Lin Yutang, tr. Taipei: Cheng-chung, Lynn, Richard John, tr. Mair, Victor H. New York: Bantam, Major, John S. Queen, et al. An impeccable rendering of this vast compendium, containing much Taoist material, and abundant quotations from The Tao and the Power.
Maspero, Henri. Taoism and Chinese Religion. Frank A. Kierman, Jr. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, Maspero, son of the renowned Egyptologist Gaston Maspero, died in Buchenwald in He was one of the last giants of French sinology.
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This book is still essential reading, placing Taoism in a broad historical and cultural context. Lao Tseu: Le Daode jing, Classique de la voie et de son efficience. Paris: Entrelacs, The anonymous poem an Siogai Romanach went,. The first thing a man expects is execution, the last that costs be awarded against him [in court]". After this period, the poets lost most of their patrons and protectors. The poets viewed the war as revenge against the Protestant settlers who had come to dominate Ireland, as the following poem extract makes clear,.
The Jacobites' defeat in the War, and in particular James II 's ignominious flight after the Battle of the Boyne , gave rise to the following derisive verse,. The 18th century perhaps marks the point at which the two language traditions reach equal weight of importance. In Swift, the English tradition has its first writer of genius. Poetry in Irish now reflects the passing of the old Gaelic order and the patronage on which the poets depended for their livelihoods.
This, then, is a period of transition writ large. As the old native aristocracy suffered military and political defeat and, in many cases, exile, the world order that had supported the bardic poets disappeared. In these circumstances, it is hardly surprising that much Irish language poetry and song of this period laments these changes and the poet's plight.
However, being practical professionals, the poets were not above writing poems in praise of the new English lords in the hope of finding a continuity of court patronage. This was not generally a successful tactic, and Gaelic poets tended to be folk poets until the Gaelic revival that began towards the end of the 19th century.
However, many of the poems and songs written during this period of apparent decline live on and are still recited and sung today. The end of old ways, a feature of the bardic laments of the 18th century, is also to be found in the early 19th century poem Caoine Cill Chais The Lament for Kilcash. In this verse the anonymous poet laments that the castle of Cill Chais stands empty, its woods are cut down and its old splendours departed.
Flood and Flood :. What shall we do from now on without timber? The last of the woods is gone. No more of Kilcash and its household And its bells will not ring again. The place where that great lady lived Who received esteem and love above all others Earls came from overseas to visit there And Mass was sweetly read. Merriman was a teacher of mathematics who lived and worked in the Munster counties of Clare and Limerick. The poem begins by using the conventions of the Aisling , or vision poem, in which the poet is out walking when he has a vision of a woman from the other world.
In Merriman's hands, the convention is made to take an unusual twist. The woman drags the poet to the court of the fairy queen Aoibheal. There follows a court case in which a young woman calls on Aoibheal to take action against the young men of Ireland for their refusal to marry. She is answered by an old man who first laments the infidelity of his own young wife and the dissolute lifestyles of young women in general.
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He then calls on the queen to end the institution of marriage completely and to replace it with a system of free love. The young woman returns to mock the old man's inability to satisfy his young wife's needs and to call for an end to celibacy among the clergy , so as to widen the pool of prospective mates. Finally, Aoibheal rules that all men must mate by the age of 21, that older men who fail to satisfy women must be punished, that sex must be applauded, not condemned, and that priests will soon be free to marry.
To his dismay, the poet discovers that he is to be the first to suffer the consequences of this new law, but then awakens to find it was just a nightmare. In Jonathan Swift — , Irish literature in English found its first writer of real genius. Although best known for prose works like Gulliver's Travels and A Tale of a Tub , Swift was a poet of considerable talent.
Technically close to his English contemporaries Pope and Dryden , Swift's poetry evinces the same tone of savage satire, and horror of the human body and its functions that characterises much of his prose. Swift also published translations of poems from the Irish. Oliver Goldsmith ? The last of these may be the first and best poem by an Irish poet in the English pastoral tradition. It has been variously interpreted as a lament for the death of Irish village life under British rule and a protest at the effects of agricultural reform on the English rural landscape.
Local cultural differences in areas such as north and east Ulster produced minor, and often only loosely associated, vernacular movements that do not readily fit into the categories of Irish or English literature. Working class or popular in nature, remaining examples are mostly limited to publication in self-published privately subscribed limited print runs, newspapers, journals of the time.
The promotion of standard English in education gradually reduced the visibility and influence of such movements. In addition, the polarising effects of the politics of the use of English and Irish language traditions also limited academic and public interest until the studies of John Hewitt from the s onwards.
Further impetus was given by more generalised exploration of non-"Irish" and non-"English" cultural identities in the latter decades of the 20th Century. During the course of the 19th century, political and economic factors resulted in the decline of the Irish language and the concurrent rise of English as the main language of Ireland. This fact is reflected in the poetry of the period.
Paradoxically, as soon as English became the dominant language of Irish poetry, the poets began to mine the Irish-language heritage as a source of themes and techniques. Callanan — was born in Cork and died at a young age in Lisbon. Unlike many other more visibly nationalist poets who would follow later, he knew Irish well, and several of his poems are loose versions of Irish originals. Although extremely close to Irish materials, he was also profoundly influenced by Byron and his peers; possibly his finest poem, the title work of The Recluse of Inchidony and Other Poems , was written in Spenserian stanzas that were clearly inspired by Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.
Probably the most renowned Irish poet to write in English in a recognisably Irish fashion in the first half of the 19th century was Thomas Moore — , although he had no knowledge of, and little respect for, the Irish language. He attended Trinity College Dublin at the same time as the revolutionary Robert Emmet, who was executed in Moore's most enduring work, Irish Melodies , was popular with English audiences. The poems are, perhaps, somewhat overloaded with harps, bards and minstrels of Erin to suit modern tastes, but they did open up the possibility of a distinctive Irish English-language poetic tradition and served as an exemplar for Irish poets to come.
The group of politicians and writers associated with The Nation came to be known as the Young Irelanders. However, the most significant poet associated with The Nation was undoubtedly James Clarence Mangan — Another poet who supported the Young Irelanders, although not directly connected with them, was Samuel Ferguson — Ferguson once wrote: 'my ambition is to raise the native elements of Irish history to a dignified level. He also wrote a moving elegy to Thomas Davis. Ferguson, who believed that Ireland's political fate ultimately lay within the Union, brought a new scholarly exactitude to the study and translation of Irish texts.
William Allingham — was another important Unionist figure in Irish poetry. Born and bred in Ballyshannon, Donegal, he spent most of his working life in England and was associated with the Pre-Raphaelite movement, and a close friend of Tennyson. His most important work is the long poem, Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland , a realist narrative which wittily and movingly deals with the land agitation in Ireland during the period.
He was also known for his work as a collector of folk ballads in both Ireland and England. Ferguson's research opened the way for many of the achievements of the Celtic Revival, especially those of W. Yeats — and Douglas Hyde — , but this narrative of Irish poetry which leads to the Revival as culmination can also be deceptive and occlude important poetry, such as the work of James Henry — , medical doctor, Virgil scholar and poet.
His large body of work was completely overlooked until Christopher Ricks included him in two anthologies, and eventually edited a selection of his poetry. Various in his means, cosmopolitan in his range and possessed of an acute wit, Henry shows the negative force of nationalism in Irish criticism: his omission from standard accounts and anthologies for over years can only be due to his blithe disregard of the matter of Ireland. During the 19th century, poetry in Irish became essentially a folk art. His Mise Raifteiri an file is still learned by heart in some Irish schools.
In addition, this was one of the great periods for the composition of folk songs in both languages, and the majority of the traditional singer's repertoire is typically made up of 19th-century songs. Probably the most significant poetic movement of the second half of the 19th century was French Symbolism.
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This movement inevitably influenced Irish writers, not least Oscar Wilde — Although Wilde is best known for his plays, fiction, and The Ballad of Reading Gaol , he also wrote poetry in a symbolist vein and was the first Irish writer to experiment with prose poetry. However, the overtly cosmopolitan Wilde was not to have much influence on the future course of Irish writing. Yeats was much more influential in the long run. Yeats, too, was influenced by his French contemporaries but consciously focused on an identifiably Irish content.
As such, he was responsible for the establishment of the literary movement known as the Celtic Revival. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in Apart from Yeats, much of the impetus for the Celtic Revival came from the work of scholarly translators who were aiding in the discovery of both the ancient sagas and Ossianic poetry and the more recent folk song tradition in Irish.
One of the most significant of these was Douglas Hyde, later the first President of Ireland , whose Love Songs of Connacht was widely admired. In the s, Yeats became acquainted with the work of James Joyce , and worked closely with Ezra Pound , who served as his personal secretary for a time. Through Pound, Yeats also became familiar with the work of a range of prominent modernist poets. He undoubtedly learned from these contacts, and from his book Responsibilities and Other Poems onwards his work, while not entirely meriting the label modernist, became much more hard-edged than it had been.
A second group of early 20th-century Irish poets worth noting are those associated with the Easter Rising of Although much of the verse written by them is predictably Catholic and Nationalist in outlook, they were competent writers and their work is of considerable historical interest.
Pearse, in particular, shows the influence of his contact with the work of Walt Whitman. However, it was to be Yeats' earlier Celtic mode that was to be most influential. Amongst the most prominent followers of the early Yeats were Padraic Colum — , F. Higgins — , and Austin Clarke — In the s, Clarke, returning to poetry after a long absence, turned to a much more personal style and wrote many satires on Irish society and religious practices.
Irish poetic Modernism took its lead not from Yeats but from Joyce. The s saw the emergence of a generation of writers who engaged in experimental writing as a matter of course. Beckett's poetry, while not inconsiderable, is not what he is best known for. Coffey's two late long poems Advent and Death of Hektor are perhaps his most important works; the latter deals with the theme of nuclear apocalypse through motifs from Greek mythology.
Of this group, Devlin is the least experimental; his friendship with Allen Tate while working at the Irish embassy in Washington is one index of the traditional tendencies of his verse. Long poems such as 'Lough Derg' and 'The Heavenly Foreigner' written in the late s and early s explore ideas of Catholicism and Europe in a densely imagistic and occasionally obscure style. While Yeats and his followers wrote about an essentially aristocratic Gaelic Ireland, the reality was that the actual Ireland of the s and s was a society of small farmers and shopkeepers. Inevitably, a generation of poets who rebelled against the example of Yeats, but who were not Modernist by inclination, emerged from this environment.
Patrick Kavanagh — , who came from a small farm, wrote about the narrowness and frustrations of rural life. John Hewitt — , whom many consider to be the founding father of Northern Irish poetry, also came from a rural background but lived in Belfast and was amongst the first Irish poets to write of the sense of alienation that many at this time felt from both their original rural and new urban homes.
Louis MacNeice — , another Northern Irish poet, was associated with the left-wing politics of Michael Roberts 's anthology New Signatures but was much less political a poet than W. Auden or Stephen Spender , for example. MacNeice's poetry was informed by his immediate interests and surroundings and is more social than political. In the South, the Republic of Ireland, a post-modernist generation of poets and writers emerged from the late s onwards.
With the foundation of the Irish Free State it became official government policy to promote and protect the Irish language.
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Although not particularly successful, this policy did help bring about a revival in Irish-language literature. Since then, a number of Irish-language poets have come to prominence. While all these poets are influenced by the Irish poetic tradition, they have also shown the ability to assimilate influences from poetries in other languages. The Northern Irish poets have already been mentioned in connection with John Hewitt.
Of course, there were others of some importance too, including Robert Greacen — who, along with Valentin Iremonger , edited an important anthology, Contemporary Irish Poetry in Greacen was born in Derry, lived in Belfast in his youth and then in London during the s, s and s. Other poets of note from this time include Roy McFadden — , a friend for many years of Greacen.
Another Northern poet of note is Padraic Fiacc born , who was born in Belfast, but lived in America during his youth. In the s, and coincident with the rise of the Troubles in the province, a number of Ulster poets began to receive critical and public notice. Heaney is probably the best-known of these poets. Derek Mahon was born in Belfast and worked as a journalist, editor, and screenwriter while publishing his first books.
His slim output should not obscure the high quality of his work, which is influenced by modernist writers such as Samuel Beckett. Muldoon is Howard G. Clark '21 Professor in the Humanities at Princeton University. In he was also elected Professor of Poetry at the University of Oxford.
Some critics find that these poets share some formal traits including an interest in traditional poetic forms as well as a willingness to engage with the difficult political situation in Northern Ireland. Others such as the Dublin poet Thomas Kinsella have found the whole idea of a Northern school to be more hype than reality, though this view is not widely held. Initially this was to publish their own work and that of some like-minded friends including Paul Durcan, Michael Hartnett and Gerry Smyth , and later to promote the work of neglected Irish modernists like Brian Coffey and Denis Devlin.
Both Joyce and Smith have published considerable bodies of poetry in their own right. Among the other poets published by the New Writers Press were Geoffrey Squires born , whose early work was influenced by Charles Olson , and Augustus Young born , who admired Pound and who has translated older Irish poetry, as well as work from Latin America and poems by Bertolt Brecht. Younger poets who write what might be called experimental poetry include Maurice Scully born , and Randolph Healy born
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